THE CORE OF REDISCOVERY

In the “Core of Rediscovery” part of the program, Larry Kinsella presented replicated artifacts and information on the technology used by Lewis and Clark and the native tribes that they encountered.



bulletHand-drill fire—drilling wood spindles into wooden palette
bulletFireboard—wooden palette made of soft wood—cottonwood, yucca, cedar,
bulletSpindle—long stick made of soft wood—cattail, yucca, goldenrod
bulletBird’s nest—cedar bark shavings to accept coal
bulletFlint and steel—striking chert onto steel

General terms:

bulletArchaeology—the study of the physical remains of civilizations
bulletArchaeologist—one who studies the physical remains of civilizations
bulletExperimental Archaeologist—one who replicates artifacts and uses them to see how they were made, used, and lasted

Flintknapping—the art of taking a rock made of flint or chert and knapping with a billet to make an arrow point

bulletFlint (or chert) a metamorphic rock found in limestone
bulletKnapping—striking the rock
bulletBillet—often an antler from a deer or elk used to strike the rock
bulletPressure flaker—a smaller tool used to do fine detail chipping
bulletFlintknapper—one who makes arrowheads
bulletArrowheads—small, often triangular pieces of chert (or metal) that have been knapped which are used on the ends of arrow shafts


Spears—long shafts of wood used in hunting with three parts—the flint (metal) spear point, the foreshaft, and the shaft

bulletSpear point—sometimes called knives made of chert or metal used at the end of shafts for hunting
bulletForeshaft—(dart) retractable short piece of wood at the end of the long shaft that holds the spear point
bulletShaft—long piece of wood
bulletAtlatl—a spear throwing device with a hook at one end that allows the spear to travel 3 times further and with 300 times more strength
bulletBanner Stone—a counter weight used when hunting white-tail deer


Stone axes

bullet Full- grooved 
bullet3/4 grooved made from granite and lashed onto wooden club 
bulletCelts—Not grooved and imbedded into the club

Cordage—Rope often made from plants such as jute

Sharks-Tooth Club—a ceremonial club with 5 great white sharks’ teeth and 8 serrated flint points.


Birger Figurine—a statue found at Cahokia Mounds that shows a woman kneeling on a snake with a short-handled hoe in its back and climbing up the woman’s back to transform into a vine with 5 gourds on it



                                                                              Suggested Activities:

Science: Click on Stories and Stone Teacher's Guide and scroll down to "Activities for Stone Tool Presentation."

Language: Write a story about the Birger Figurine. Write a page in the Lewis and Clark journal citing the various stone tools and fire making in the presentation.

Art: Make cordage—add beads and feathers to make interesting jewelry


The final story “Raccoon and Crayfish” is in Iroquois Stories Heroes and Heroines Monster and Magic by Joseph Bruchac, The Crossing Press, Trumansburg, New York, 1985, ISBN 0-89594-167-8    Joe Bruchac's webpage:



The expedition encountered nearly 50 different tribes to find out about them visit

For information on the tribes sited in the Piasa visit:


For an easy search by keyword, go to this site and click “Search the Trail’:

For information on Cahokia Mounds:

For info on Marilyn Kinsella or Larry Kinsella visit:


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